Joint Audio/Text Training for Transformer Rescorer of Streaming Speech Recognition

Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Abstract

Recently, there has been an increasing interest in two-pass streaming end-to-end speech recognition (ASR) that incorporates a 2nd-pass rescoring model on top of the conventional 1stpass streaming ASR model to improve recognition accuracy while keeping latency low. One of the latest 2nd-pass rescoring model, Transformer Rescorer, takes the n-best initial outputs and audio embeddings from the 1st-pass model, and then choose the best output by rescoring the n-best initial outputs. However, training this Transformer Rescorer requires expensive paired audio-text training data because the model uses audio embeddings as input. In this work, we present our Joint Audio/Text training method for Transformer Rescorer, to leverage unpaired text-only data which is relatively cheaper than paired audio-text data. We evaluate Transformer Rescorer with our Joint Audio/Text training on Librispeech dataset as well as our large-scale in-house dataset and show that our training method can improve word error rate (WER) significantly compared to standard Transformer Rescorer without requiring any extra model parameters or latency.

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